This chapter explains the tradition of mindfulness meditations from the point of view of Eastern Inner Science tradition in accordance with Nalanda university as described in Unity in Duality® by Tarab Tulku, a Buddhist scholar who sought to explain them in secular terms. Mindfulness, as used herein, refers to the traditional Buddhist spiritual discipline of ’the four mindfulness meditations’ (of body, feeling, mind and phenomena). The Unity in Duality view examines the interrelated nature of reality using a polar framework of ‘subject-object,’ ‘body-mind’ and ‘energy-matter’.
From the Buddhist perspective emotions arise due to attraction and rejection. We are attracted to that which we need in order that our entity and the present identity/self-reference can survive and we reject anything, which seems to threaten the continuity of this identity/self-reference. This applies to everything, which has come into dual and samsaric existence.
The vast spectrum of emotions and feelings evolve and arise solely on the basis of our individual identities/self-references and it is only at the point of higher evolutionary development like ours this instinct for survival may develop into emotions.
The ancient knowledge that underlies the Unity in Duality / Pratityasamutpada / Tendrel paradigm, which Tarab Tulku XI1 presented as an extract of the universal knowledge from the Sutras and Tantras, derives through Tibet’s academic culture from the Indian academic tradition of Nalanda. However, Indian academic tradition is said to have roots back 5.000 years into the ancient culture of the Indus Valley. This melting pot of ancient cultures seems to comprise also traces of insight and knowledge from Central Asia and maybe even from Western cultures of that time.