This chapter explains the tradition of mindfulness meditations from the point of view of Eastern Inner Science tradition in accordance with Nalanda university as described in Unity in Duality® by Tarab Tulku, a Buddhist scholar who sought to explain them in secular terms. Mindfulness, as used herein, refers to the traditional Buddhist spiritual discipline of ’the four mindfulness meditations’ (of body, feeling, mind and phenomena). The Unity in Duality view examines the interrelated nature of reality using a polar framework of ‘subject-object,’ ‘body-mind’ and ‘energy-matter’.
From the Buddhist perspective emotions arise due to attraction and rejection. We are attracted to that which we need in order that our entity and the present identity/self-reference can survive and we reject anything, which seems to threaten the continuity of this identity/self-reference. This applies to everything, which has come into dual and samsaric existence.
The vast spectrum of emotions and feelings evolve and arise solely on the basis of our individual identities/self-references and it is only at the point of higher evolutionary development like ours this instinct for survival may develop into emotions.
Tibetan dream work has an extensive history incorporating pre-Buddhist folk religion, Bon and Buddhism. Tibetans who experience problems with Nature spirits use dreams to resolve these, in addition to consulting with Oracles. The use of spirits and oracles is entrenched in Tibetan culture; there is a State Oracle, and each person has a birth spirit or protector spirit, which helps the person throughout his or her life. When people were disturbed by a negative spirit, they would call on their helping spirit, and whether this occurred in the waken state or dream state made little difference. This facility of working with spirits in the dream state still prevails amongst Tibetans today.
In our common view we see birth as some kind of beginning and death as the end, like some kind of cessation or disappearing, as if it was a straight line with a definite beginning and ending.
The Buddhist view however is circular. Birth is a new beginning, then we have being or existence, followed by death, which leads again to new creation, a new birth. So there is a connection between the end of something and a new arising, there is no break in between.
Any kind of phenomenon, all dual existence, is transitory, which implies that it is subject to change, to continuous change. But the change is never in a straight line, it is always attaining a circular movement.
Editor’s Note: Tarab Tulku, L.R.G.S, Dr.Phil., is a Tibetan lama, the eleventh in-carnation of the Tarab Tulku. Tarab is an abbreviation of the much longer name of a monastery in Tibet. Tulku means "reborn." He has been educated in Tibet at the University of Drepung Monastery, where he received the highest degree, Lharampa Geshe, in Buddhist philosophy and metaphysics, as well as in meditation disciplines (including Tantra). At present Tarab Tulku is the head of the Tibetan section of the Royal Library and of the Tibetan department of Copenhagen University. On the basis of his own profound experience and accumulated knowledge, Tarab Tulku has modified the original Tibetan Buddhist techniques and developed therapeutic meth-ods adapted to Western approaches, still integrating the essence of the esoteric meditation practices of Tibetan Buddhism.